SCAN: Self Examine Your Skin

Head - to - toe self-examination of your skin every month, for new or changing lesions that might be cancerous or precancerous. 

 1. What to do:

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2. What to lookout for:  

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Melanoma often resemble moles. While it is not the most common skin cancer, it causes the most deaths.

If you see one or more changes make an appoint with a dermatologist

How to Choose Your Sunscreen

 SOURCE: This informative video has been sourced from the Tedtalk YouTube account - Presented by Mary Poffenroth

What's Clay got to do with it

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Destiny connect.com article by Dr. Nomphelo Gantsho on the low-down on why you should pop on a face mask tonight:

Link: http://www.destinyconnect.com/2017/03/17/whats-clay-got/

Melanoma - Skin Cancer

International Melanoma World Society Educational Symposium (Cape Town, 2017) 

Melanoma often resemble moles.

While it is not the most common skin cancer, it causes the most deaths.

Melanoma incidence is increasing worldwide, males more than females:

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Early Detection is Important

Head-to-toe self-examination of your skin every month, for new or changing lesions that might be cancerous or precancerous.

1. What to do:

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2. What to lookout for: 

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If you see one or more changes make an appoint with a dermatologist

LEARN ABOUT AGE SPOTS

Continuing on the series of informative videos of skin conditions, this post focuses on: Age Spots.

SOURCE: This informative video has been sourced from the YouTube account of  The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS)

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The information provided on this website is for general health information purposes only, and is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment by a qualified health care provider.

LEARN ABOUT VITILIGO

Continuing with the series of informative videos of skin conditions, this post focuses on: Vitiligo. Click the video below for further details.

SOURCE: This informative video has been sourced from the YouTube account of  The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS)

LEARN ABOUT ACNE

Continuing on the series of informative videos of skin conditions, this post focuses on: Pimples, Blackheads, Whiteheads & Skin inflammation. Click the video below for further details.

SOURCE: This informative video has been sourced from the YouTube account of  The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS)

LEARN ABOUT THE ANATOMY OF THE SKIN

Learn about the anatomy of the skin, including the many layers underneath that may not be visible to the naked eye.

SOURCE: This informative video has been sourced from the YouTube account of The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS)

MAKE WINTER WORK FOR YOUR SKIN

My contribution Published in the Destiny, True Love and Bona Magazine for May 2015, in their Clicks Be Beautiful Autumn / Winter Supplement. (Click on the title above to see the publication)

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The information provided on this website is for general health information purposes only, and is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment by a qualified health care provider.

SKIN CANCER: GET THE FACTS

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South Africa has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. Knowing how to protect yourself is essential in the fight against this common cancer, which if caught early can often be cured writes, Dermatologist, Dr Nomphelo Gantsho.

It’s well known that the sun is particularly harsh in the southern hemisphere, due to the depletion in the protective ozone layer around the earth. This means that educating everyone about the facts of skin cancer and going for regular screening at the dermatologist is essential practice to avoid skin cancer. It’s the downside of living in year round sunshine.

Who is most susceptible to skin cancer?

People of all colours and races get skin cancer – nobody is excluded. However, those with light skin who sunburn easily do have a higher risk. 

Risk factors include: 

  • unprotected or excessive UV exposure such as from sunlight or tanning booths; 
  • pale skin which burns easily and is often associated with natural redheads and blondes; 
  • if your job exposes you to certain chemicals such as in coal tar, arsenic and radium; 
  • a family history of skin cancer; 
  • if you have many moles on your skin and particularly unusual shaped moles; 
  • and if someone have suffered severe sunburn in the past.

What happens in the body to cause skin cancer?

Sometimes errors or mutations occur in the DNA of skin cells, and when these mutations grow out of control they can turn into cancer cells.

Are there different types of cancer?

Actually there are many different types, but the three most common types are BCC (Basal Cell Cancer), SCC (Squamous Cell Cancer) and Melanoma. These skin cancers have different subtypes so it’s difficult to describe how each looks like. There are many variants as well.

Can some of the types of skin cancer enter the blood stream and cause cancer elsewhere in the body?

All types of cancer can spread to other areas of the body, skin cancer included. Ranging from BCC which is generally slow growing, to Melanoma, which is very aggressive.

Are sunbeds safe?

No. A recent report has found a direct link between the use of sunbeds and skin cancer. Many sunbeds give out greater doses of UV rays than the midday Mediterranean sun.

What about fake, rub on tanning products – are they safe?

The main ingredient in fake tan is DHA, or dihydroxyacetone. It’s listed as a cosmetic ingredient under EU legislation, so it’s likely to be safe with normal dose and usage.

So what can the average person do to protect against skin cancer?

Broadly speaking, the best way to keep safe it to avoid long exposure to intense sunlight and practice sun safety. You can still exercise and enjoy the outdoors, but it just needs to be done safely. Always avoid direct sun exposure between 10am and 4pm. 

Teach children the shadow rule – if your shadow is shorter than you, the sun’s rays are at the harshest. 

Practise the SLIP, SLOP, SLAP and WRAP rule, which means: 

  1. Slip on a shirt; 
  2. Slop on sunscreen – SPF of at least 30+ and reapply it every two hours even on overcast days. Remember to apply sunscreen on your ears and neck too. 
  3. Slap on a wide-brimmed hat; and 
  4. Wrap on sunglasses.

Also avoid other sources of UV light, such as tanning beds and sun lamps which are dangerous. Importantly, everyone must get to check their  skin regularly and report any changes to their dermatologist. Self-examination is essential, so everyone must check their skin often for any new skin growths or changes in existing moles, freckles, bumps and birthmarks.

How does the layperson know if they have skin cancer?

Any change on your skin – especially in the size or colour of a mole, growth or spot – must be checked by a dermatologist. Also any change in sensation, a spread of pigmentation, oozing, scaling or bleeding from a skin lesion must be assessed immediately. Always look out for pre-cancer evidence such as areas of skin that are red and rough to touch, as these can easily be treated with liquid nitrogen.

Can areas of the body that have never been exposed to the sun still get skin cancer? 

Yes, they certainly can. Sun exposure is just one of the risk factors for skin cancer. 

Other risk factors include: 

  • a family history of cancer, 
  • using irritating substances, 
  • moles or birth marks. 

Any of these can lead to skin cancer anywhere on the body.

Are there special precautions to be taken for children?

Most important is to educate children on the risks of sun exposure, and teach them the sun safety advice of slip, slap, slop, wrap and staying out of the sun between 10am and 4pm. Babies under a year old should be kept out of direct sunlight.

Which area of the body is skin cancer generally the most common?

The upper back and lower legs are common for melanoma in light skinned people and other skin cancers are found mostly in the areas most often exposed to the sun, such as the face and arms. 

Dark skinned people should be vigilant of melanoma on the palms of their hands and soles of their feet. 

If a person have never experienced bad sunburn, can they still get skin cancer?

Yes they certainly are, because sunlight is just one of the risk factors for skin cancer.

What should we look for on sunscreen to ensure we are being protected?

It is always best to encourage the use of the best sunscreen possible. Most contain a combination of ingredients for effective protection against damaging ultraviolet rays-both the deeply-penetrating UVA and the shorter-wave UVB. 

Look for the CANSA sign or a circle around the letters UVA to indicate UVA protection too. In general, it’s easier to use the spray-on sunscreens for the body, and gel- or cream-based formulations for the face, ears and neck. Everyone is encourage to use sunscreens with an SPF of 30 +.

How is skin cancer treated?

There are many options for treating skin cancers, depending on the type, area, depth, severity, age and skin type of the patient. They will need to see a dermatologist and discuss the various options, which range from freezing (freezing using liquid Nitrogen), to radiation, excision (surgical removal), curettage (scraping out) and cautery, Laser, PDT (Photodynamic therapy), Mohs (micrographic surgery) , etc.

Dr Gantsho adds that: Skin cancer is the most common of all cancers and its incidence is increasing. So encourage everyone to be more aware of their skin and anything that changes. Simple non-invasive treatments for early skin cancer or precancerous lesions can save time, money and heartache. Annual mole scans done by a dermatologist should be mandatory, especially for light skinned people.

 

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The information provided on this website is for general health information purposes only, and is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment by a qualified health care provider.

What causes dandruff? How can I treat dandruff?

The exact cause of dandruff, also known as scurf or Pityriasis simplex capillitii is unknown.

So, what are the factors that may contribute to dandruff?

Not enough hair brushing

People who do not comb or brush their hair regularly have a slightly higher risk of having  dandruff - this is because they are not aiding the shedding of skin that combing or brushing provides.

Yeast

People who are sensitive to yeast have a slightly higher risk of having dandruff, so it is logical to assume that yeast may play a part. Yeast-sensitive people who get dandruff often find that it gets better during the warmer months and worse during the winter. UVA light from the sun counteracts the yeast. Some say, that during winter the skin is drier because of cold air and overheated rooms (exposure to extreme temperatures), making dandruff more likely. So, it is sometimes not that easy to know whether it is yeast or just dry skin.

Dry skin

People with dry skin tend to get dandruff more often. Winter cold air, combined with overheated rooms is a common cause of itchy, flaking skin. People with dandruff caused by dry skin tend to have small flakes of dandruff; the flakes are not oily.

Seborrheic dermatitis (irritated, oily skin)

People with seborrheic dermatitis are very prone to dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis affects many areas of the skin, including the backs of the ears, the breastbone, eyebrows, and the sides of the nose, not just the scalp. The patient will have red, greasy skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales.

Certain skin conditions

People with psoriasis, eczema and some other skin disorders tend to get dandruff much more frequently than other people.

Some illnesses

Adults with Parkinson’s disease and some other neurological illnesses are more prone to having dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Patients recovering from heart attacks and strokes and some people with weak immune systems may have dandruff more often than other people.

Reaction to hair or skin care products

Some people react to some hair care products with a red, itchy, scaling scalp. Shampooing too often may cause dandruff as it can irritate the scalp.

Malassezia

Malassezia is a fungus that lives on everybody's scalp. Generally, it will cause no problems at all. However, it can grow out of control. It feeds on the oils our hair follicles secrete. When this happens, the scalp can become irritated and produce extra skin cells. These extra skin cells die and falloff; they mix with the oil from the hair and scalp, and turn into what we see as dandruff.

Diet

Some experts say that people who do not consume enough foods that contain zinc, B vitamins, and some types of fats are more prone to dandruff.

Mental stress

Studies have shown that there is link between stress and many skin problems.

HIV

This study found that 10.6% of people with HIV have seborrheic dermatitis.

Diagnosis of dandruff

You do not need a doctor to diagnose dandruff. You can do this yourself. If you see the characteristic white flakes on your scalp, you have dandruff.

If you still want to see a doctor, no special preparations are needed to help the doctor diagnose dandruff. Diagnosis will be confirmed by looking at the scalp and skin. Anybody who has started using some new hair care product may find it useful if they bring the bottles with them.

If your dandruff gets no better after some weeks of self-treatment, you should then consider seeing your doctor, especially if there are red, swollen patches on the scalp.

How can I treat dandruff?

Two factors should be considered when you treat dandruff:

• Your age

• The severity of your dandruff.

Your aim will be to stop the dandruff by slowing down the reproduction of skin cells, or counteract the yeast production that might be the cause.

Shampoos and scalp preparations

Shampoos and products for the scalp are available OTC (over-the-counter, no prescription needed) at most stores and pharmacies. It is important to remember that seborrheic dermatitis can be controlled, but not cured with these products.

Before using an anti-fungal shampoo see if you can remove any scaly or crusty patches on your scalp - do this with care. If you manage to remove them, the shampoo will be more effective.

If you have dandruff on your beard, you can use dandruff shampoo on it.

Most anti-dandruff or anti-fungal shampoos contain at least one of the following active ingredients:

Zinc pyrithione - an ingredient which slows down the production of yeast.

Selenium sulphide - this reduces the production of natural oils your scalp glands produce.

Coal tar - this has a natural anti-fungal agent. If your hair is dyed or treated remember that long-term coal tar usage can stain the hair.

Ketoconazole - a very effective anti-fungal. Most people who use this are pleased with the results. Experts say shampoos with this ingredient can be used with young and elderly people.

Salicylic acids - these help your scalp get rid of skin cells. They do not slowdown the reproduction of skin cells. Many "scalp scrubs" contain salicylic acids. Some people find salicylic acid treatments leave their scalps dry and eventually make the flaking of the skin worse.

Tea-tree oil - A growing number of shampoos now include tea-tree oil as one of its ingredients. It has been used for centuries as an anti-fungal, antibiotic, and an antiseptic. However, some people are allergic to it.

Green Tea potential - Researchers from the Medical College of Georgia, USA, found that green tea may have potential for the treatment of dandruff and psoriasis.

Ideally, select a shampoo that has one of the above ingredients and shampoo your hair with it every day until your dandruff is under control. When that happens, use them less frequently. You may find a particular shampoo stops being so effective after a while, if this occurs switch to one that has another ingredient.

Make sure the shampoo has time to stay on your scalp before you rinse it off - perhaps about five minutes. If you rinse it off too quickly, the ingredient will not have enough time to work.

If after several weeks of treating yourself you still have dandruff, you should consider seeing your doctor or a dermatologist (skin specialist).

What are the possible complications of dandruff?

A person with dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis will hardly ever experience complications. If one were to occur, it would more likely be caused by one of the dandruff treatments. If you find one of your dandruff shampoos or scalp treatments is causing irritation, stop using it and ask your pharmacist to suggest another one.

Bacteria can get in under your skin if there is a break on the skin of the scalp. If this happens, and you feel unwell, or that area of skin is red, tender and swollen, go and see your dermatologist.

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The information provided on this website is for general health information purposes only, and is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment by a qualified health care provider.

ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ACNE

 What is acne? What causes acne? How to look after your skin if you have acne or prone to acne?

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Contents of this article:

1.    What is acne?

2.    The types of pimples

3.    How common is acne?

4.    What causes acne?

5.    Treatment of acne

6.    How to look after your skin

7.    How to prevent making acne worse

 1. What is acne?

Acne, is a skin condition that involves the oil glands at the base of hair follicles. It commonly occurs during puberty when the sebaceous (oil) glands come to life - the glands are stimulated by hormones produced by the adrenal glands of both males and females. Boys are more commonly affected than girls.

The word acne comes from the word acme meaning "the highest point," which comes from the Greek akme meaning "point" or "spot" - it was originally misspelt, with an 'n' rather than an 'm' in 1835.

Acne, common type is medically known as Acne Vulgaris. Acne is a skin condition that involves the oil (sebaceous) glands at the base of hair follicles. In humans, pimples tend to appear on the face, back, chest, shoulders and neck which are oil rich areas.

Human skin has pores (tiny holes) which connect to oil glands located under the skin. The glands are connected to the pores via follicles - small canals. These glands produce sebum, an oily liquid. The sebum carries dead skin cells through the follicles to the surface of the skin. Some pores become blocked (plugged).

Simply put - skin cells, sebum and hair can clump together into a plug, this plug gets infected with bacteria, resulting in a swelling. A pimple starts to develop when the plug begins to break down.

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) a bacterium commonly found on the skin, which will multiply rapidly in blocked follicles.

 2. The types of pimples

▪    Whiteheads - remain under the skin and are very small

▪    Blackheads - clearly visible, they are black and appear on the surface of the skin. Remember that a blackhead is not caused by dirt. Scrubbing your face vigorously when you see blackheads will not help

▪    Papules - visible on the surface of the skin. They are small bumps, usually pink

▪    Pustules - clearly visible on the surface of the skin. They are red at their base and have pus at the top

▪    Nodules - clearly visible on the surface of the skin. They are large, solid pimples. They are painful and are embedded deep in the skin

▪    Cysts - clearly visible on the surface of the skin. They are painful, and are filled with pus. Cysts can easily cause scars.

 3. How common is acne?

Dermatologists (skin specialists) say that approximately three-quarters of 11 to 30 year-olds will get acne at some time. Acne can affect people of all races and all ages. It most commonly affects adolescents and young adults, although there are people in their fifties who still get acne. 

Although acne affects both men and women, young men suffer from acne for longer - probably because testosterone, which is present in higher quantities in young men, can make acne worse

 4. What causes acne?

Nobody is completely sure what causes acne. Experts believe the primary cause is a rise in androgen levels - androgen is a type of hormone. Androgen levels rise when a human becomes an adolescent. Rising androgen levels make the oil glands under your skin grow; the enlarged gland produces more oil. Excessive sebum can break down cellular walls in your pores, causing bacteria to grow. 

Some studies indicate that a susceptibility to acne could also be genetic. Some medications that contain androgen and lithium may cause acne. Greasy cosmetics may cause acne in some susceptible people. Hormone changes during pregnancy may cause acne either to develop for the first time, or to recur some women’s skin can clear.

 5. Treatment of acne

Acne is common and is usually treatable. You may need treatment for several months to clear spots. Inflamed acne needs to be treated early to prevent scarring. Once the spots are gone, you may need maintenance treatment for several years to keep the spots away.

How your acne is treated may depend on how severe and persistent it is.

Treating mild acne - The majority of people who get acne will develop mild acne. This can usually be treated with OTC (over-the-counter) medications. OTC medications can be bought at a pharmacy without a doctor's prescription. They are usually applied to the skin - topical medicines.

 Treating moderate acne - You may be prescribed an oral or topical antibiotic. Antibiotics can combat the growth of bacteria (P. acnes) and reduce inflammation. Most commonly Erythromycin and Tetracycline are prescribed as antibiotics for the treatment of acne.

 Treating more severe cases of acne - If your acne is more severe, you should consider seeing a dermatologist. The specialist may prescribe a treatment that will be suitable to treat your type of acne. Prescription medications for acne are presented in many forms, such as creams, lotions, oral etc. Your dermatologist will decide what is best for you.

 Treating cystic acne - If an acne cyst becomes severely inflamed, there is a high risk of rupturing. A rupturing acne cyst can often result in scarring. The specialist may inject a diluted corticosteroid to treat the inflamed cyst and to prevent scarring. A cyst is injected with intralesional corticosteroid directly. The injection will lower the inflammation and speed up healing. The cyst will "melt" within a few days.

 Oral contraceptives - The majority of women with acne find that taking certain oral contraceptives clears it up. Oral contraceptives suppress the overactive gland and are commonly used as long-term treatments for acne in women. If a woman has a blood-clotting disorder, smokes, has a history of migraines, or is over 35, she should not take this medication without checking with a gynaecologist first.

 6. How to look after your skin if you have acne (or are prone to acne)

▪    Wash your face about twice each day. Do not wash it more often. Use a mild soap made especially for people with acne, and warm water. Do not scrub the skin.

▪    Don't try to burst the pimples. Popping pimples makes scarring.

▪    If you have to get rid of a pimple for some event, such as a wedding, or public speaking occasions, ask a dermatologist to treat it for you

▪    Try to refrain from touching your face with your hands.

▪    Always wash your hands before touching your face. This includes before applying lotions, creams or makeup

▪    You skin needs to breathe. If your acne is on your back, shoulders or chest try wearing loose clothing. Tight garments, such as headbands, caps and scarves should be avoided - if you have to wear them make sure they are cleaned regularly

▪    Don't go to sleep with makeup on. Only use makeup that is noncomedogenic or nonacnegenic - you should be able to read this on the label. If you cannot find it, ask the shopkeeper or pharmacist. You should use makeup which does not have oil and does not clog up the pores

▪    Hair collects sebum and skin residue. Keep your hair clean and away from your face

▪    Too much sun can cause your skin to produce more sebum. Several acne medications make you more sun sensitive. Always apply a noncomedogenic sunscreen to protect yourself from being sunburn. 

▪    If you shave your face, do it carefully. Use either an electric shaver or safety razors. If you use a safety razor make sure the blade is sharp. Soften your skin and beard with warm soapy water before applying the shaving cream.

 7. How to prevent making acne worse

▪    Menstrual cycle - girls and women with acne tend to get it worse one or two weeks before their menstrual period arrives. This is probably due to hormonal changes that take place. Some people say they eat more chocolate during this time and wonder whether there may be a connection. However, experts believe the worsening acne is not due to chocolate, but rather to hormonal changes

▪    Anxiety and stress - mental stress can affect your levels of some hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline, which in turn can make acne worse. Again, stress can make some people binge-eat. Experts believe the culprits are most likely the hormone levels, rather than the binge-eating

▪    Hot and humid climates - when it is hot and humid we sweat more. This can make the acne worse

▪    Oil based makeups - moisturizing creams, lubricating lotions, and all makeup that contain oil can speed up the blocking of your pores

▪    Greasy hair - some hair products are very greasy and might have the same effect as oil based makeup. Hair products with cocoa butter or coconut butter are examples

▪    Squeezing the pimples - if you try to squeeze pimples your acne is more likely to get worse, plus you risk scarring.

Radio Tygerberg Interview extract with Dr. Nomphelo Gantsho

The audio extract of Dr. Nomphelo Gantsho's interview with Radio Tygerberg 104 FM Denise Williams, talking about dermatological matters (27 August 2014 at 20H15 for 0:37:42 min).

TIPS ON DRY WINTER SKIN

Dry skin is common during the winter and can lead to flaking, itching, cracking and even bleeding. But you can prevent and treat dry skin.

1. Skin is scaly:

One culprit: a steamy hot shower. 

It's tempting, especially in cold weather, to take long, hot showers. But being in the water for a long time and using hot water can be extremely drying to the skin. Hot water drains skin's moisture barrier.  Keep your baths and showers short and make sure you use warm, not hot, water.

2. Itching:

Switching to a mild cleanser can also help reduce itching. Be sure to gently pat the skin dry after your bath or shower, as rubbing the skin can be irritating.

Applying moisturizer after getting out of the bath or shower is recommended. Ointments and creams tend to be more effective than lotions. Dab on a cream with ceramides, hydrating lipids that dry air depletes, 

3. Sensitive skin:

Wear soft fabrics that breathe, such as 100 % cotton. With wool or other rough fabrics, wear a soft fabric underneath.

Be sure to check the ingredients in skin-care products, because deodorant soaps, alcohol-based toners and products that contain fragrance can irritate dry, sensitive skin.

4. Hands feel like sandpaper:

Skin on hands has few oil glands, so there's less natural defence against cold, dry air. 

It's a good idea to apply hand cream after each hand-washing. If the skin on your hands needs more help, dab petroleum jelly on them before bed. If your hands are frequently immersed in water, wear waterproof gloves.

If these measures don't relieve your dry skin, you may require a prescription ointment or cream. Dry skin can be a sign of an underlying health condition, such as eczema. Go and see your dermatologist.

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The information provided on this website is for general health information purposes only, and is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment by a qualified health care provider.

SKIN TYPES AND TREATMENTS

 

 

 

There are four general skin types: dry, oily, normal and combination. In addition, it is possible to have sensitive skin along with one of the four general types.

Below are the tips on how to treat your skin type?

Dry Skin:

If your skin has a strong tendency toward dehydration, lacks oil, and has few breakouts if any at all, it is considered dry. In more extreme cases, dry skin lacks elasticity and can be extremely sensitive to the sun, wind, and cold temperatures. Wash your face once a day with a rich, creamy cleanser and warm water.

Treatment: Rinse with warm water and pat your skin dry. Use toner to help with that tight and flaky feeling of dehydration. Avoid toners and makeup that contain alcohol as alcohol-based products have a drying effect on skin. Use a cream-based lotion to hydrate your skin and keep it rejuvenated.

Oily Skin:

If your skin is oily, it usually has a lot of shine to it very soon after cleansing and the pores are generally slightly enlarged. It is more prone to pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads than other skin types and is coarser in texture.

Treatment: Your skin tends to attract more dirt than dry skin, so wash your face twice a day with a gentle non-foaming cleanser and warm water. Rinse with warm water. Use an alcohol-free, hydrating toner to help remove additional residue. Oil blotting sheets through out the day can help control shine, and it takes as little as 3 minutes after lunch. Although your skin's oily, you still must moisturize it with a light moisturizer daily, or your skin will become dry underneath and overcompensate by producing more oil.

Normal Skin:

Some consider normal skin to be combination skin, but it is not. If your skin is oily in the "T zone" and your nose while dry and taut on the cheeks, it is considered normal. It's also considered normal if it changes with seasons (dryer in winter, oilier in summer). Normal skins can also be 'Normal-To's' as in normal to oily or normal to dry.

Treatment: Wash your face with cleansers that are designed for your normal/normal-to skin type. Wipe an alcohol free, hydrating toner all over the face. Apply moisturizer more frequently to dry skin.

Combination Skin:

Combination skin is comprised of two extreme skin types on one face. These situations occur when there is acne and a lot of oil in one area when the rest of the skin is generally dry (no oil).

Two common examples are dry skin with papular and pustular acne on the cheeks or a normal skin with inflamed papular and pustular acne in the chin and mouth area.

Treatment: Tend to each area appropriately as described above. If the acne is severe, consult a dermatologist or esthetician.

Sensitive Skin:

Please note that you may have sensitive skin and normal, oily, or dry. If your skin has allergic reactions to beauty products and is usually sensitive to the sun, wind, and cold weather, it is sensitive. Sensitivity can show up in rash, redness, inflammation, acne, and dilated capillaries.

Treatment: Look for cleansers, toners, makeup, and moisturizers that are fragrance-free and hypoallergenic. Cleanse, tone and moisturize with gentle products everyday. The idea for your skin is to always choose products with a soothing benefit. Some common ingredients to look for are: chamomile, azulene, bisabolol, allantoin, lavender, camphor, calamine, rosemary, thyme, aloe vera, coconut oil etc.

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The information provided on this website is for general health information purposes only, and is not intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment by a qualified health care provider.